Protractor Automation for Angular
Before you can grasp Protractor Automation for Angular, you’ll need to understand a little about Angular itself.
What is Angular?
Angular is an open-source, front-end web application platform that was developed by the Angular team at Google.
AngularJS vs Angular Confusion
It was originally was AngularJS, but you’ll notice the newer versions have dropped the JS; the current version is named Angular 4.
This was done because Angular was completely rewritten and is now simply called Angular. Angular is a typescript-based, open-source project.
So any reference to AngularJS would be Angular 1, and any time you see it as Angular without the JS, it’s Version 2 and above.
Why Use Angular?
Angular is cross-platform, is really fast, and has great support for unit testing tools like Karma. And of course, the whole point of this article is to point out that it has great end-to-end testing support from Protractor.
Protractor is an end-to-end framework for Angular and AngularJS applications.
It runs tests against your application using an actual browser, which allows you to test like a real user.
Protractor was specifically created for testing Angular apps; it supports out-of-the-box, Angular-specific locator strategies, which allows you to test Angular-specific elements without any setup effort on your part.
Protractor has Awesome Automatic Waiting
Another huge benefit of using Protractor is that it also has automatic waits, which means you’ll no longer need to explicitly add waits and sleeps to your tests.
Protractor automatically knows when an Angular app is done loading and executes the next step in your test the moment the Web page finishes any pending tasks.
This means you needn’t worry about waiting for your test (and the Web page that is under test) to synch.
Waiting issues are a frequent cause of flaky Selenium tests, but these synch errors can be avoided by using Protractor.
If You Are Brand New to Protractor
If you are new to Protractor, here are some things you need to know (Bonus: these could also be interview questions for protractor):
To get Protractor set up you just need two files for it to run:
- Spec file – this is your test script which has a Jasmine defined test with Describes and It blocks.
- config file – this tells Protractor where your test script files are, where to talk to your Selenium server and many other options.
What Language to Use with Protractor?
Once you have your test script and configuration set up, what will be the starting point when Protractor is ready to execute? It’s the onPrepare function in the config file.
The onPrepare function contains things like methods for reporting of files, or maximizing a window.
By default, Protractor uses a Jasmine-like wrapper called Jasmine WD as its test framework. Jasmine WD allows you to write more concise, easier-to-read statements.
What makes Protractor easier to use for some folks than, say, using Selenium with Java, are its global variables.
Some examples of global variables are:
- Browser – a wrapper around an instance of web driver.
- Element – searches for an element on the page. It takes a locator and returns an ElementFinder
- By – a collection of element locator strategies
- Protractor – its namespace which wraps the Webdriver namespace. Contains static variables and classes such as Key, which enumerates the codes for special keyboard signals.
Protractor takes care of a bunch of things under the covers for you that you don’t have to worry about if, for example, you are creating a framework from scratch using just Selenium.
Those are some of the most commonly known items for Protractor, which should help you get started. For performance testing using Protractor, there is even a Protractor-Perf framework you can check out.
You may also want to take a look at my post on Effortless Protractor Automation Quickstart tutorial, which will show you how to install and code up your first Protractor test.
Most of this info in this post was taken from Manoj Kumar, who is a contributor to different libraries including Selenium, ngWebDriver, Serenity, and Protractor, was one of the 2018 Automation Guild Conference speakers, and his session covered Protractor.